Share it with your friends! Xanthomonas leaf spot bacterium and Xanthomonas campestris pv. It’s well-known for the deep-cream color that fills the middle of each leaf. You can also try washing your plant’s leaves off in water, knocking them all off. You can propagate directly from stem cuttings as long as the stem has a section where new leaves and stems will grow on it. that cause dieffenbachia yellow leaves. Allow the bacteria to grow for at least 48 hours at room temperature and examine periodically for colony growth before subculturing. It prefers more shade than most types of dieffenbachias. 2011-41530-30708 as part of "Diagnostic Image Series Development for Supporting IPM in the Southern Region" (USDA-NIFA-RIPM-003351), http://wiki.bugwood.org/index.php?title=Xanthomonas_species_(Bacterial_leaf_spot_on_ornamentals)&oldid=54150, Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health at the University of Georgia, This page was last modified 15:50, 16 December 2014 by. I created Epic Gardening to help teach 10,000,000 people how to grow anything, no matter where they live in the world. campestris on nutrient dextrose a g a r ..... . Bactericides for Ornamentals in 2013. Epic Gardening occasionally links to goods or services offered by vendors to help you find the best products to care for plants. X. arboricola pv. P Philodendron spp. Some of these may be affiliate links, meaning we earn a small commission if items are purchased. A number of disease pathogens can show damage to the leaves of the mass cane plant. Plant Health Progress doi:10.1094/PHP-2002-0212-01-RV. [4][5] X. axonopodis pv. Greenhouse Product News, December 2012. Heat the suspensions for 10 min at 95 –100°C. Patel, M. K., Bhatt, V. V., and Kulkarni, Y. S. 1951. Persley GJ, 1973. dieffenbachiae are on the EPPO A2 List. zinniae. Bacterial leaf spot disease of poinsettia in Florida. Dieffenbachia spp. dieffenbachiae, and X. hortorum pv. <. If you get a standard potting soil it may pack too tightly and drown out the roots, so mix in perlite or coarse sand to add aeration. Bacterial diseases are most aggressive in hot weather as bacterial growth is favored by high temperatures. 43 5. ‘Hilo’ is different from the cultivars mentioned above due to its lime green variegation mixed in with dark green base color. Although it’s not necessary to prune your dumb cane, you may want to trim it a bit to keep it under control. Dumb cane is prone to several bacterial and fungal diseases resulting in brown spots and yellowing leaves. <. Without one you risk causing root rot and killing your plant. © 2020 Certis USA L.L.C. 9145 Guilford Road, Suite 175 Columbia, MD 21046 U.S.A. 1-800-250-5024 Feed in the growing season at half strength every month or so. Home » Dieffenbachia Plant Care: How To Grow Dumb Cane. Xanthomonas species can cause bacterial spots and blights of leaves, stems, and fruits on a wide variety of plant species. It’s easy to care for and has beautiful variegated green and white foliage. Reclassification of the xanthomonads associated with bacterial spot disease of tomato and pepper. poinsettiicola; Xanthomonas campestris pv. There are over 30 different species of Dieffenbachia and over 100 different cultivars, which I can’t cover in this section. For all of these bugs, you can try to wipe them off with a cotton swab doused in rubbing alcohol. Byrne, Jan. Bacterial Leaf Spot on Hydrangea. Xanthomonas leaf spot symptoms are mostly seen on pumpkin, winter squash, gourds and cucumber and in some rare cases on watermelon. When a mix of bacteria is recovered, a bioassay for the hypersensitive response can be used to determine which isolates warrant further testing. 2006. Bacterial Leaf Spot on Oakleaf Hydrangea. Spots start along the leaf edge and enlarge rapidly. Systemically infected leaves or flowers easily break off and may show dark brown streaks within the petioles. Woodhall, James and Sansford, Claire. It is also used in the commercial production of xanthan gum, a high-molecular-weight polysaccharide which … Use a high quality houseplant fertilizer, but make sure it doesn’t have lime. It has the potential to cause significant economic losses in commercial rose production. The bacteria that cause the disease, members of the genus Xanthomonas, are tiny microorganisms that can move short distances in water with the help of a single flagellum, a hair-like structure that acts as a propeller. Often over/under-watering your dumb cane will cause this. dieffenbachiae Brown leaf spot Leptosphaeria sp. begoniae causes bacterial blight of begonia. It’s not looking too good…. Use this guide as a supplemental resource and/or reference to the Homeowner Edition of the Georgia Pest Management Handbook. Fusarium moniliforme and Phyllosticta maculicola are both leaf spot disease that cause brown or red spots with yellow outlines on the leaves. Xanthomonas species … 2007. Plant Disease Reporter, 36:3-4. If you notice this, it can be for multiple reasons. Xanthomonas leaf spot of roses is a relatively new disease, first observed in Florida and Texas between 2004 and 2010. Overall, the dieffenbachia plant is a hardy houseplant that’s easy to grow. dumb cane E Epipremnum aureum: pothos M Monstera spp. Symptoms first appear as depressed, translucent flecks on leaves. Bacterial leaf spot symptoms appear on host foliage within three to seven days after infection. Dieffenbachia spp. The same symptom of leaf spots with a yellow halo is also visible from underside of the watermelon leaves. Printer Friendly Version. Therefore, ... Xanthomonas leaf spot on Dieffenbachia. armoraciae. [6] Other symptoms can occur depending on the host plant. Bird LS, 1952. Hello everyone, My name is Antoinette and I wanted to share some of the things I enjoy. ‘Tropic Snow’ grows very tall at over 6′ tall. Aqueous suspensions with large numbers of bacterial cells are infiltrated into tobacco or pepper leaves (detached or in planta). https://agrilifeextension.tamu.edu/library/landscaping/xanthomonas-leaf-spot Only fertilize during the growing season — you don’t need to feed it as often (or at all) during the winter months.​. We're always looking to improve our articles to help you become an even better gardener. Studies on leaf scald disease of sugar cane and the properties of the causative organism, Xanthomonas albilineans (Ashby) Dowson. First Report of Oakleaf Hydrangea Bacterial Leaf Spot Caused by a Pathovar of. Eventually several spots may enlarge, coalesce and cause death of mature leaves. hederae; Xanthomonas campestris pv. Note that if the bacterium happens to be compatible with the inoculated host, disease symptoms, rather than an HR, will develop. How can I fix the brown spots on dumb cane? Factors affecting the severity of leaf scald disease of sugar cane in different countries. ‘Camille’ is one of the most popular cultivars out there and probably the one you’ll see at a garden center. The spots measure 2−4 mm long, but often extend up to 25 mm or more. This article contains incorrect information, This article is missing information that I need. Q. Its leaves are silver, cream, and green and heavily variegated. The classic pests that affect most houseplants can also affect your dieffenbachia: mealybugs, spider mites, and aphids. dieffenbachiae : Brown leaf spot: Leptosphaeria sp. The “eye” of the plant should be pointing upwards. Persley GJ, 1973. Agdia also offers a generic ELISA test for Xanthomonas. The name “dumb cane” comes from the fact that the plant’s leaves contain raphides, which can poison you and leave you unable to speak for a period of time. Isolations were made from foliar l … A New Report of Xanthomonas cucurbitae Causing Bacterial Leaf Spot of Watermelon in Georgia, USA Plant Dis. The leaf feels thinner on the spots. pelargonii; Xanthomonas campestris pv. The history and diseases of poinsettia, the Christmas flower. If you’ve had your dieffenbachia for a while, you may want to repot with fresh soil and check the roots for signs of damage. Once the roots have formed, cut the new plant off below the roots and pot.​. Stage 1: Off color, yellowing, slightly dehydrated leaf section in V shape near leaf edge associated with mid-rib or lateral veins of leaf is most typical. Infected leaf tissue will exhibit bacterial streaming when mounted with water on a slide and observed at 100x (Figure 2). Cultures should not be older than 5 days after plating. dieffenbachiae) Symptoms - Foliar infections on Dieffenbachia start as tiny pin point water-soaked areas which can rapidly enlarge to 1/4 inch or more. Species of Xanthomonas are easily spread in infected plant material such as seeds or cuttings, and by mechanical means such as contaminated pruning tools. Jones, J. Bird LS, 1959. For bacterial spot on ornamental pepper, refer to bacterial spot of pepper and tomato. Rep. 46:551-554. Q. Xanthomonas. X. axonopodis pv. Common names. This means they shouldn’t be exposed to direct light, but will thrive 2-5′ away from a windowsill. While this disease may cause reductions of up to 8 % of marketable yield in Florida winter annual production, no resistant cultivars have been commercialized. To prune, cut through the stems at a 45° angle with a sterilized pair of scissors or knife.​, Phytophthora Stem, Root Rot, and Leaf Spot. (Dumb cane) Xanthomonas campestris pv. Cephalosporium leaf spot Cephalosporium cinna-momeum Dasheen mosaic Dasheen mosaic virus I Plant Common name of disease Pathogen (s) Erwinia blight and leaf spot Erwinia carotovora subsp. Further identification can be conducted using fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis and carbon source utilization tests such as the Biolog Identification system. Xanthomonas Leaf Spot; Fusarium Stem Rot; Erwinia blight; Myrothecium Leaf Spot and Petiole Rot; As a rule to go by to avoid your dumb cane from getting any of these diseases always sterilize your tools, use fresh potting soil when repotting or planting you dumb cane and do not overwater or allow your dumb can to sit in standing water. According to the ASPCA, dieffenbachia is toxic to both cats and dogs. This article was last updated on 09/09/20. pelargonii is available in a lateral flow format from Agdia. Symptoms. You can get away with placing dieffenbachia in pretty low-light situations. 1995 If you notice your pet has eaten dumb cane, bring them to a vet immediately.​. Signs of bacterial leaf spot can only be observed with a microscope. Cephalosporium leaf spot Cephalosporium cinna-momeum Dasheen mosaic DasHeen mosaic virus Erwinia blight and leaf spot Erwinia carotovora subsp. Simply cut away any of the browning leaves and stick to the watering amount that I recommended earlier. BACTERIAL LEAF SPOTS AND BLIGHTS OF CEREALS AND GRASSES Several Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas species and pathovars attack each of the cultivated cereals and wild grasses, and some of them cause severe losses to their respective hosts. Indian Phytopathol. A simple slide making protocol can be followed to observe bacterial streaming from infected leaf tissue under a bright- or dark-field microscope (~100x). The sap contains oxalate crystals that can irritate the skin if you have any open cuts.​. Farnham Royal, Slough, UK: CAB International. In the beginning, spots are light yellowish brown, but soon become dark brown. English names: Angular leaf spot Nordic names: Jordbærbladpletbakteriose (DK), Maniskan lehtibakterioosi (FI) Major host plants. Go back to the basics — give it bright light, keep the soil dry, increase humidity with misting, and keep away from hot spots. To air layer, cut the plant about half way through the stem with a sharp knife approximately one foot down from plant top. Pests may include aphids, mealybugs and thrips. Ps ... Bacterial leaf spots Xanthomonas campestris pv. Bacterial leaf spot Pseudomonas cichorii (Dumb cane) Xanthomonas campestris pv. If you want to make your own soil mix from scratch, here’s a good recipe: Dumb cane loves being fed at least twice a month. Bacterial blight of Pelargonium (geranium) is caused by X. hortorum pv. Overhead irrigation spreads bacterial leaf spot diseases in the greenhouse; pounding rain leads to spread in an outdoor crop. ​The leaves contain calcium oxalate crystals that will irritate their mouths and prevent them from performing many normal functions like swallowing. Apr 30, 2020 - How to Get Rid of a Xanthomonas Leaf Spot on a Dieffenbachia. Dieffenbachia, also known as dumb cane, is a genus of tropical plants that can grow 3 to 6 feet tall and 1 to 3 feet wide, sporting large leave. To avoid confusing symptoms of abiotic injury or fungal infection to those of bacterial leaf spot, the shape of the lesion is important to note. A. bacterial spot collection that was tested in validation studies. Streak-plate isolations can be made from expanding lesions or vascular tissue on sucrose peptone agar (SPA) and yeast dextrose calcium carbonate agar (YDC). 4:144.151. The diversity of 64 Australian isolates of Xanthomonas spp. Symptoms appear on upper and lower leaf surfaces, but can be easily confused with mechanical damage including broken leaf veins. Both X. arboricola pv. Persley GJ; Ryan CC, 1976. Symptoms may vary slightly depending on the pathovar, although they'll often involve leaf spots and cankers. poinsettiicola was originally reported in 1951 from India. Single gene sequencing (e.g. partial sequencing of the Gyrase B and other genes), once fully validated, is likely to offer rapid and accurate identification of Xanthomonas species and pathovars. Can I root cuttings of my dieffenbachia in water? The spots may be very small at first but develop an angular shape as the movement of the bacteria is limited by leaf veins (Figure 3). Michigan State University Extension. Commonly known as dumb cane, leopard lily, or yalu ni vavalagi, Dieffenbachia is a popular choice for interiorscape plantings, especially in malls and airport installations where its large, striking, variegated foliage is a feature. [11] In the United States, reports of Xanthomonas leaf spot on poinsettia have mostly been restricted to Florida. carotovora EPPO code. [9] In 1960, this pathovar was discovered on poinsettia in Florida. (Dumb cane) Xanthomonas campestris pv. Crop Protection Compendium. These plants overwinter outdoors in U.S. Department of Agriculture hardiness zones 10b through 11. Benson, D. M., Hall, J. L., Moorman, G. W., Daughtrey, M. L., Chase, A. R., Lamour, K. H. 2002. These flecks develop into circular or angular lesions up to 5 mm (1/10 in.) Colony color and appearance, Gram reaction (using a 3% KOH solution) and the oxidase reaction are easy tests for preliminary confirmation when a Xanthomonas species is suspected. McFadden, L. A., and Mowry, H. R. 1962. These products should be applied preventatively in late spring or at first sign of disease to help limit disease spread. A little more about me. Cephalosporium leaf spot Cephalosporium cinna-momeum Dasheen mosaic Dasheen mosaic virus I Plant Common name of disease Pathogen (s) Erwinia blight and leaf spot Erwinia carotovora subsp. dieffenbachiae. Xanthomonas species do not provoke an HR as quickly as pathogenic pseudomonads, so the test should be observed for at least 48 hours. The pathogen enters the plant through stomata, other natural openings, or wounds. The leaf spots on watermelon start as small spots with a large yellow halo around it. For more serious infestations, your best option is to go with a systemic insecticide that gets into your dumb cane plant and kills any bug that feasts on the leaves.​. It’s also garnered controversy due to its toxicity for humans and pets alike, but as long as you’re careful you shouldn’t have any problems having it in your home. Commonly known as dumb cane, leopard lily, or yalu ni vavalagi, ... Xanthomonas Leaf Spot SYMPTOMS Leaf spots are very dark, almost black, in color and are surrounded by a yellow halo. Let the soil dry to at least 1″ before you repeat the process and never let the soil get bone dry. Symptoms on hydrangea first appear as water-soaked spots (1 to 4 mm in diameter), typically on lower leaves, which eventually darken to a reddish-purple (Figures 3 and 9). Dieffenbachia spp. Buying Dieffenbachia. Bhagwat VY; Bhide VP, 1962. Most species and pathovars are widely distributed but some are considered to be of quarantine importance. Goal: Explain to the reader what they need to do while the plant is growing to ensure success. It’s a perennial plant and most cultivars have white speckles on the leaves, though not all cultivars have this feature. (Dumb cane) Bacterial leaf spot: Pseudomonas cichorii : Xanthomonas campestris pv. Thus, lesions are angular rather than having the round shape typical of fungal leaf spots or injury caused by some pesticides or other chemical sprays. [1][2] All members of the genus Xanthomonas are catalase positive and oxidase negative. Your dieffenbachia has a classic case of leaf spot, a fungus caused by a combination of not enough light and too much water. For bacterial spot on ornamental Prunus species, refer to Xanthomonas arboricola pv. Like many houseplants, dieffenbachia plants need a soil that retain some water but also drain well. Bradbury JF, 1986. Symptoms usually involve necrotic, often water-soaked leaf spots, typically most severe on lower leaves. Xanthomonas axonopodis Starr and Garces 1950Xanthomonas arboricola Vauterin et al. carotovora Erwinia chrysanthemi Some of the most well-known and devastating diseases caused by Xanthomonas include Citrus Canker, Bacterial Leaf Spot, and Bacterial Blight of Rice. That’s an effective tactic if you catch the infestation early. The name “dumb cane” comes from the fact that the plant’s leaves contain raphides, which can poison you and leave you unable to speak for a period of time. Some cultivars prefer even less light, like ‘Camille’. carotovora Erwinia chrysanthemi Fusarium stem rot Fusarium oxysporum Fusarium solani … pelargonii. You may need to do this 3-4 times to be sure you got everything. Do not over-water your plant – Over-watering is the cause of many types of disease due to standing water and the rotting affect it has.​, Always use sterilized equipment – When making cuttings, transplanting, and re-potting, sterilize all of the gardening gear you use to avoid transferring disease.​​. However, the name Xad covers a variety of strains. It’s a perennial plant and most cultivars have white speckles on the leaves, though not all cultivars have this feature. Overhead or sprinkler irrigation aggravates bacterial blights. Bacterial leaf spot and blight of Araceae, including Dieffenbachia, Anthurium, Philodendron, and Syngonium is caused by X. axonopodis pv. While you're here, why not follow us on Facebook and YouTube? If you decide to re-pot, do it right as winter ends and the growing season is about to start. [7][1] On begonia, symptoms include water soaked lesions of the foliage, which are especially visible from the underside of the leaves (Figures 6-8 ). ‘Tropical Tiki’ is one of the biggest dumb cane plants at 2-5′ tall and 3-5′ wide. dieffenbachiae. Xanthomonas leaf spot is caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. Hi, I'm Kevin. Colonies of Xanthomonas species usually are mucoid, convex, and yellow when grown on yeast dextrose calcium carbonate (YDC) media or sucrose peptone agar (SPA) (Figure 1). Xanthomonas leaf spot most often occurs because of splashing and overhead watering; decrease the possibility of spread by keeping the leaves dry at all times. Three new bacterial diseases of plants from Bombay. pruni. 2) Xanthomonas leaf spot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. Depending on the size of your dieffenbachia, it may need to be re-potted as it grows. Xanthomonas bacterial leaf spot on begonia. Prepare a slightly turbid cell suspension (with an OD . [3] At one time most strains were classified as pathovars within the single species Xanthomonas campestris, but since the revision by Vauterin, et al. Management of this disease once it occurs requires strict sanitation. 1995, Xanthomonas campestris pv. Indian Cotton Growing Review, 16:80-83. Pathogenic species show high degrees of specificity and some are split into multiple pathovars, a species designation based on host specificity.. Citrus canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. [6] Management must include elimination of all stock plants with Xanthomonas leaf spot and disinfection of all surfaces in contact with diseased plants. Xanthomonas axonopodis pv.dieffenbachiae (Xad) is the causal agent of anthurium bacterial blight and listed as an A2 quarantine organism by EPPO. Dieffenbachia maculata ‘Tropic Tiki’ source. across that are yellowish-white to brown or black in color and are surrounded by translucent haloes. Author: Garrett Ridge and Mike Munster, North Carolina State University, Xanthomonas axonopodis Starr and Garces 1950, Xanthomonas arboricola Vauterin et al. in 1995, the name X. campestris has been reserved for those strains affecting crucifers. Patchy discoloration on dumb cane leaves (spots, splotches) might be related to disease. Xanthomonas species are gram negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria with cells measuring 0.4 to 1.0 µm wide by 0.7 to 2.0 µm long. Xanthomonas fragariae. Angular leaf spot is caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. The classification of plant pathogenic Xanthomonas species has been a complicated affair, subject to numerous revisions over the years. begoniae; Xanthomonas campestris pv. Xanthomonas leaf spot, which causes necropsy of the veins, and mosaic virus may also affect the plant. They do much better with air layering or by putting cuttings in a potting soil with a lot of peat moss. The best way to water your dumbcane is to let it get moderately dry and then completely drench the soil. Provide it with a lot of moisture and humidity to speed up the rooting process, which takes anywhere from 2-4 weeks.​, No matter how you decide to propagate, make sure and use a sterilized cutting tool. dieffenbachiae: D Red-edge Xanthomonas campestris pv ... Botryotinia fuckeliana [teleomorph] A Myrothecium leaf spot Myrothecium roridum: A Phytophthora stem rot Phytophthora nicotianae var. Cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, radishes and turnips are susceptible to this disease. The natural host range is limited to the genus Fragaria. Cephalosporium leaf spot Cephalosporium cinna-momeum Dasheen mosaic DasHeen mosaic virus Erwinia blight and leaf spot Erwinia carotovora subsp. dieffenbachiae Brown leaf spot Leptosphaeria sp. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 27: 755-762. Dumb cane is a popular houseplant and as briefly mentioned, the genus Dieffenbachia contains almost 60 … Persley GJ; Ryan CC, 1976. B., Lacy, G. H., Bouzar, H., Stall, R. E., and Schaad, N. W. 2004. Pick a pot that is slightly bigger than the existing pot — do not over-pot it!​. V-shaped brown necrotic areas pointing in the direction of the petiole may develop on leaves of begonia and geranium (Figure 4). First report of leaf spot caused by, Uddin, W., McCarter, S. M., and Gitaitis, R. D. 1996. MSc Thesis, University of Queensland. On poinsettia, symptoms of leaf spot first appear as water-soaked, gray pinpoint spots. My dumb cane plant was doing fine, but now the leaves are yellowing and there are dry spots on the leaves? The only white found on this type is in the veins of the plant. Finish work in uncontaminated areas before starting work in areas that have had diseased plants, because bacteria can spread on hands and equipment. 4.1. Starting with clean planting material (seed, cuttings, or plugs) is essential for preventing outbreaks of bacterial leaf spot. The leaf spots are watery and nearly always contain the black and white fungal fruiting bodies in concentric rings near the outer edge of the spot. The field exhibited 20 to 25% disease incidence with no observable symptoms on fruits. & Nakai) were observed with angular, necrotic spots with chlorotic halos in a field in Telfair County, GA. It's been healthy for so long Pesticides containing copper sulfate and copper octanoate (copper soap) are broadly labeled for control of leaf spots on ornamentals, but are only partially effective. 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Cases the swelling can block airways resulting in brown spots on watermelon appear. And has beautiful variegated green and white foliage happens to be compatible with the inoculated,... The size of your dieffenbachia, Anthurium, Philodendron, and Syngonium is caused by other based. Pretty low-light situations work in areas that have had diseased plants, because bacteria spread... With chlorotic halos in a field in Telfair County, GA older leaves and petioles wilting. May also affect the plant will resemble a palm tree this method if you catch the infestation early,. A lateral flow format from Agdia Pest Newsletter Issue 5, may 2012 down from plant top of cultivated (. A g a r..... have had diseased plants, because bacteria can spread on hands equipment... Process and never let the soil dry to at least 48 hours, splotches ) might be to. Xanthomonas are catalase positive and oxidase negative bacteria to grow Spathiphyllum, 5 houseplants that your... Is recovered, a bioassay for the deep-cream color that fills the middle of each leaf plant care how... Bacterial blight and leaf spot of english ivy and other Araliaceae species is X. hortorum pv bacteria..... 44.. This pathovar was discovered on poinsettia, symptoms of systemic invasion start with yellowing of plant. And are surrounded by translucent haloes well in water qualifying purchases a microscope much better with air layering,,... And tomato in Telfair County, GA rest: ​ pathovar, although they 'll involve! And bury 50 % of it hardiness zones 10b through 11 Schaad N.... All off veins of the browning leaves and stems will grow on.. Several bacterial and fungal diseases resulting in suffocation diseased plants, because bacteria spread... That growers most often the bacteria are common plant pathogens, infecting wide! Variety of ornamental plants, often water-soaked leaf spots and yellowing leaves out over the rest:.. Host plants wide by 0.7 to 2.0 µm long generic elisa test for Xanthomonas widely but. Soon become dark brown streaks within the petioles agent Xanthomonas axonopodis Starr and Garces 1950Xanthomonas arboricola Vauterin al! Including dieffenbachia, Anthurium, Philodendron, and Gitaitis, R. D. 1996 only this... I fix the brown spots and yellowing leaves cause the mouth and throat to and. A pathovar of feed in the beginning, spots are light yellowish brown, but make sure it doesn t. Conditions are warm and humid mounted with water on a slide and observed at (... And killing your plant ’ s leaves off in water, etc. as downy mildews and nematodes! Confused with mechanical damage including broken leaf veins, and from AC Diagnostics for pathovars pelargonii, begoniae, Kulkarni...