This causes harvest delays because of prussic acid concerns, and may result in forage quality reductions. A forage sorghum silage crop removes large amounts of nutrients, so soil testing is essential with this crop. Since forage sorghum is adapted to warm conditions, early season growth is also slow compared to corn. Cultivation is also an effective option when forage sorghum is grown in rows. Sorghum is originated in India and Africa. A Pennsylvania farmer hit a new dryland yield record in the National Sorghum Producers yield contest. Prussic acid occurs mostly in young plants or plants harvested shortly after a frost or drought-ending rain. Generally, forage sorghum silage has 75% to 85% of the energy value of corn silage per unit of dry matter, while other summer annual grasses have 60% to 80% percent of the value of corn silage. Nonprotein nitrogen additives such as urea and anhydrous ammonia can make forage sorghum almost a complete ration for growing heifers. Forage sorghum is best adapted to warm regions and is particularly noted for its drought tolerance compared to corn. Because of the lower quality of forage sorghum crops compared to corn, they are best used in situations where forage sorghum yields are higher than corn or where livestock energy requirements are less than what is supplied by corn silage. In most areas, yields will be maximized with a mid-May to early June planting date. Forage sorghum has performed well in no-till systems when conditions are favorable in the seed zone. NASS publications cover a wide range of subjects, from traditional crops, such as corn and wheat, to specialties, such as mushrooms and flowers; from calves born to hogs slaughtered; from agricultural prices to land in farms. Facing weather challenges, economic uncertainty and a challenging year overall, sorghum farmers showed […] Nutrient requirements should be adjusted for previous crop credits and manures. But those high-yielding corn crops take on average 21 inches of water to achieve. National Sorghum Producers is proud to announce a new U.S. dryland sorghum yield record has been set at 245.86 bushels per acre by Ella Johnston of Fulton County, Pennsylvania, in the 35th National Sorghum Yield Contest. Like corn, forage sorghum yields increase with narrower rows. Yields of forage sorghums are comparable to corn and can range from 15- to 30-ton per acre depending on the soil, weather, and the hybrid. In addition, the risk of corn rootworm damage to corn following sorghum is low and no rootworm insecticide treatment is required for the corn. Seed suppliers can provide hybrid maturity recommendations for specific areas. The seed should not be sowed more than 2 – 3 cm depth. Sorghum yield and forage quality are maximized at levels between 60 and 72 percent moisture content. Forage sorghum can be a profitable alternative crop, provided that it is managed well and used in the right situations. This year’s top yield and Bin Buster winner is Santino Santini of New Jersey with 212.5 bushels per acre. Sorghum will continue to grow when adjacent corn fields are exhibiting leaf rolling due to water stress. Severe drought stress or cool, late season temperatures may delay the maturity of the crop. It has less tolerance than corn to cool soil conditions under heavy residue or to soils that may be wet where furrow closure is a problem. in sandy soil. Forage sorghum hybrids can vary considerably in yield potential, height, forage quality, grain content, and maturity. Starter fertilizers similar to those used for corn can be used with forage sorghum when planted with a row planter, but if the crop is drilled they should be avoided to prevent starter fertilizer injury. Insects are generally not a problem on forage sorghum and no chemical controls are recommended in Pennsylvania. Total income from 1 acre Sorghum cultivation: The minimum support price for Sorghum for the year 2018-19 is Rs. PROVINCE WISE AERAGE YIELD OF JOWAR FROM 1947-48 TO 2017-18 (Average Yield 40 Kg Per Acre) YEAR: Punjab: Sindh: Khyber Pakhtoonkhaw: Balochistan: PAKISTAN in medium or heavy soil or 1 1/2 in. In addition, input costs (Table 2) are lower for forage sorghum so the crop is established with less financial risk. With these considerations, forage sorghum can be an important crop alternative for livestock farms in Pennsylvania. 30,600. Occasionally, in good years, forage sorghum production may exceed silage storage capabilities on the farm. Row Crop Realistic Yield Potential Crop Yield Units Realistic Yields/Acre Corn (grain) bushels 100-250 Corn (silage) wet tons 12-18 Cotton bales 1-3 Peanuts lbs 3,200 Rice bushels 144 -164 Sorghum (grain) bushels 80 - 140 Sorghum (silage) wet tons 12-18 Soybeans bushels 25-55 Sweet Potatoes cwt A … Soil pH should be maintained above 6.0 with target pH of 6.5. Questionable forage can be tested for prussic acid (HCN) at the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture Summerdale Laboratory in Harrisburg (717-787-8808). Generally after four weeks of ensiling, any prussic acid problem has been alleviated. Show the Data by Histogram. Learn how the World Bank Group is helping countries with COVID-19 (coronavirus). Sorghum or corn popularly knowns as “Jowar” in India. For Heckemeyer, his typical 200 acres of sweet sorghum will yield approximately 200 gallons of syrup per acre in average growing conditions, upwards of 300 and beyond in a good year. Kansas farmer Kimberly Gamble took first place in the Irrigated West category at 223.51 bpa. The main yield-driving factors are: Number of plants, Number of tillers per plant, Total number of seeds per head, and; Seeds per pound. Commodity Planted All Purpose Acres Harvested Acres Yield Production Price per Unit Value of Production in Dollars; CORN: CORN, GRAIN: 3,870,000: 144 BU / ACRE Be sure to request the correct safener for the herbicide you plan to use. Grain sorghum yields exceeding 100 bushels per acre have been obtained in Wisconsin (Table 2). These animals have lower energy requirements than lactating animals or those on a finishing ration. By entering your email, you consent to receive communications from Penn State Extension. LUBBOCK, Texas (Dec. 16, 2020) – National Sorghum Producers is proud to announce a new U.S. dryland sorghum yield record has been set at 245.86 bushels per acre by Ella Johnston of Fulton County, Pennsylvania, in the 35th National Sorghum Yield Contest. Producer yields are highlighted in five different categories from the eastern and western regions of the U.S. Some growers in full-season areas of Pennsylvania have utilized a double-crop rotation to produce dry cow and heifer feed very economically. Looking to achieve an industrial level, Heckemeyer said he has the capacity to bottle or sell by truck load, giving him the option to service a number of markets. The objective of this fact sheet is to describe some attributes of forage sorghum, provide some management recommendations, and describe the potential role of forage sorghum in the forage/livestock systems used on many Pennsylvania farms. Planting depth is 0.75 to 1.25 inches. Air planters may require a special drum or plate. It is important to read the information on the bag tag to accurately calculate the number of acres each 50-pound bag will plant, based on projected seeds per acre. Forage sorghum is most often planted in rows with a corn planter to facilitate harvest, reduce lodging, and permit cultivation for weed control. ... Food production index (2004-2006 = 100) Urban land area where elevation is below 5 meters (% of total land area) Land area (sq. Seed broadcasting should be avoided. This will crack more kernels and reduce the potential for kernel passage through the animals. Seed rate and Sowing in Sorghum or Jowar Farming:- Seed rate of 35-40 kg per hectare is well enough and sowing should be carried out by drilling @ row-to-row distance of 25 cm. If moisture stress becomes severe, sorghum will become dormant until the stress is relieved. Sorghum-sudangrass and sudangrass had more similar yields using either one or two harvests than other sorghum types due to greater tiller production than the forage sorghums. Minnesota research shows little response to planting rates of 20,000 to 80,000 plants/acre for sugar yield. Forage sorghum is best utilized as a silage crop, although it can be grazed or cut for hay if managed appropriately. of Farmers 30 50 55 40 20 Seeding depth should be 1 in. The nutrient recommendation for a soil testing in the optimum range for P and K is 120 pounds of N, 65 pounds of P 2 O 5, and 120 pounds of K 2 O for a crop with a 21-ton per acre yield potential. Generally, this delayed maturity will not be a major problem if the crop is harvested for silage. Yield per Acre (Quintal) 2 - 3 4 - 5 6 - 7 8 - 9 10 - 11 No. In order to best estimate the yield potential of grain sorghum, we need to understand the main plant components of sorghum yield. See All Pest, Disease and Weed Identification, See All Beer, Hard Cider, and Distilled Spirits, See All Community Planning and Engagement, Off-Season and Accelerated Lamb Production. CSV XML EXCEL. Forage sorghum usually does not regrow following harvest, unlike sorghum-sudangrass or sudangrass, so forage sorghum is best adapted to a single-cut harvest for silage. Some herbicide products are only labeled for use on sorghum that will be harvested for grain. At that price times the average government yield estimate of 73 bushels per acre, sorghum … Sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers. You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website. On more productive soils, with favorable moisture and fertility, corn is a better silage crop, producing comparable yields and higher feed value than forage sorghums and sorghum-sudangrass hybrids, (Table 1). Forage sorghum is also particularly well suited to some classes of livestock, such as dairy heifers and dry cows. Hybrids can be fertile and produce grain yields comparable to grain sorghum, or they can be sterile and produce no grain. Brown Mid Rib Trait or BMR. The feed value (TDN) of sorghum silage per acre is about 90% that of corn silage. Sorghum growers from 24 states entered to win this year’s National Sorghum Producer Yield Contest, with this year’s top yield at 228.07 bushels per acre. Forage sorghum growth can range from 5- to 15-feet tall, depending on the hybrid. Most corn planters need special sorghum plates or feed cups to handle sorghum seed. On very droughty soils, or if subsoil moisture is very low, grain sorghum may out yield corn. Consider the 204.5-bushel-per-acre entry from Greensburg, Kansas, farmers Ki and Kim Gamble, on an irrigated farm featuring Pioneer’s 84G62 hybrid. Forage sorghum has higher temperature requirements than corn. Jowar is an important Rabi season crop cultivated in around 1.20 lakh acres of land across the state. Planters should be set to place seed at a depth of ¾ to 1¼ inches. Sorghum can provide an almost-complete ration for these animals when supplemented properly. View our privacy policy. Forage sorghums typically have slightly lower energy values than corn silage, but are similar in protein. Although occasional infestations of aphids can develop in the whorl or on the heads of sorghum, these rarely cause any economic damage. Find Out . Their rotation involves a winter cereal grain harvested for silage followed by a forage sorghum harvested for silage. “Congratulations to the 2017 NSP Yield Contest Winners. A Pennsylvania sorghum grower set a U.S. record for dryland yields with a field that topped out at 245.86 bushels per acre, in the 2020 Sorghum Yield Contest. This allows any prussic acid formed to dissipate before harvesting. Forage sorghum is a large, warm-season, annual grass that is adapted to Pennsylvania and can be grown as a silage crop. Be aware of the potential for prussic acid poisoning or nitrate toxicity with forage sorghum, but also realize that these problems are not normally a concern when sorghum is harvested for silage. Like most crops, forage sorghum responds well to good silage management practices--harvest at the right moisture content for the silo, chop uniformly, fill the silo as quickly as possible, and pack the silage well. It is important to pay attention to these details to ensure consistent success with forage sorghum. Forage sorghum is a crop that has a potential under some soil/crop/livestock situations in Pennsylvania. Yields were variable in the Panhandle and were impacted by heat and drought, he said, though some acres benefited from spotty rains. This number is a testament to better hybrids being planted today and implementation of better management practices by growers. In many Pennsylvania situations, corn silage will produce high yields of a high quality forage and is a preferred silage crop compared to forage sorghum. Consequently, they are also adapted to fields where deer damage makes corn production unprofitable. Sorghum roots produce a substance that is toxic to corn rootworm larvae so sorghum can be planted following corn without the use of a soil insecticide. It is used for human consumption, fodder animal feed, and for the production of starch, adhesive, paper, etc. Performance of this warm-season crop will be poor with growing season temperatures below 60 degrees F. Seed yield has ranged from 0 to 110 bushels/acre in dryland grain sorghum hybrid performance trials during the 1990's at the NDSU Carrington Research Extension Center. Farmers who participate in the National Sorghum Producers Yield Contest, however, achieve impressive yields, too. Read More.. Forage sorghums are also adapted to farms that experience considerable deer damage to corn. The annual area under it ranges between 17 and 18 million hectares and the annual production between 8 and 10 million tonnes. Table 1. Here, substitution of forage sorghum for corn can make a large difference in the profitability of a silage production enterprise (Table 5). The best plant population will depend on whether the field is dryland or irrigated. On droughty, shallow soils, however, forage sorghum yields may be more consistent than corn. Planting should be delayed until soil temperatures reach 65°F at the 2- to 4-inch depth. Consider several key aspects of forage sorghum management to ensure success: (1) grow it in a situation where it is adapted and will result in economical feed, (2) pay attention to planting depth and planting date, (3) select a hybrid adapted to the area, and (4) harvest on time and with good silage management practices. This usually occurs between the medium-dough and hard-dough stages. I look forward to meeting each one at the upcoming Commodity Classic,” said NSP board of directors Chairman Don Bloss. Nitrates can be a problem with forage sorghum as they are with corn silage, but again this is rare and usually associated with harvesting a heavily manured or fertilized crop during or immediately following a severe stress such as a drought. Because prussic acid is volatile, it dissipates during the harvesting and ensiling process and is rarely a problem in sorghum silage. Some evidence indicates that sorghum may utilize N from previous crops such as soybeans more effectively than corn, but this has not been confirmed in Pennsylvania. Forage sorghum silage is usually slightly lower in energy than corn silage and is similar in protein. USDA forecasts this year's average sorghum farm price at $3.25 per bushel. LEARN HOW TO STOP THE INVASIVE SPOTTED LANTERNFLY, Coronavirus: Information and resources for the Extension Community. Forage sorghum yields also can be reduced with late planting, although not to the extent yields would be reduced with late-planted corn. Smaller seed size and higher temperature requirements for sorghum result in slower emergence and lower seedling vigor compared to corn. The table below shows the yield of jowar per acre. (DTN photo by … Forage sorghum can also be grown in a mixture with corn on such fields. Harvesting drier sorghum can reduce the energy and protein value. Sorghum is sensitive to some corn herbicides such as Dual or Lasso, but seed is available that is treated with safeners that allow the use of these herbicides on sorghum. Grain sorghum will produce more grain per inch of moisture up to about 24 inches, compared with corn. Table 2. The concern of prussic acid and nitrate poisoning is greatest when sorghum is grazed less that 24 to 30 inches in height, immediately after a killing frost, or on regrowth of sorghum killed by an early frost. By Ignacio A. Ciampitti, Extension crop production and cropping systems specialist. Excessive seeding rates can increase the risk of lodging problems. Entering your postal code will help us provide news or event updates for your area. Sorghum, on the other hand ranged from 160 to 140 bushels per acre. Seeding rates range from about 60,000 to 80,000 seeds per acre. Net profit from 1 acre Sorghum farming. The recommended chop length is 3/8- to ½-inch. Consult the Penn State Agronomy Guide for the latest weed control recommendations. Assume that 80 percent of the seeds planted will emerge. Sorghum maturity is rated either as full, medium, and early or by the days needed to flower. Be sure that the herbicides you select are labeled for sorghum harvested for silage. Get notified when we have news, courses, or events of interest to you. Sudangrass can be drilled or broadcast at a seeding rate of 25 to 30 pounds per acre. Effects of plant density and row spacing on grain yields of dryland sorghum. Sorghum is 8 inches on average. Harvesting and storing the grain as a high-moisture product improves the feed efficiency, as does processing the grain in a roller mill. Show the data by histogram. When compared to sorghum-sudangrass, forage sorghum silage is higher in energy and lower in protein (Table 1). 2550. It various widely depends on crop, variety, resource availability (like soil type, water and even technology) and location. Fewer herbicides are available for forage sorghum compared to corn, so control of some problem weeds may be a challenge without tillage. The nutrient recommendation for a soil testing in the optimum range for P and K is 120 pounds of N, 65 pounds of P2O5, and 120 pounds of K2O for a crop with a 21-ton per acre yield potential. This rotation facilitates manure spreading and contributes nicely to a nutrient management plan because of the large amounts of N and other nutrients removed from the soil. For instance, forage sorghum is cheaper to produce, has comparable yields, but has slightly lower forage quality when compared to corn for silage. Only drawback about agriculture is we cannot simply predict the production for an area like we do in factories. USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service Information. JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser. The ensiling process reduces nitrate content in the silage. Planting too early or too deep are two of the main causes of sorghum stand problems. Research indicates that 3 inches of water are saved in the soil profile when weeds are controlled in a timely manner after the winter wheat harvest. Full-season forage sorghums will not mature in these areas and the crop will have to be killed by frost before harvest can begin. Sorghum is often planted in 30 inch rows but could be planted in 15 or 20 inch rows to maximize production potential. For example, the minimum temperature for sorghum growth is about 60°F and highest yields occur when the mean temperatures during the growing season are between 75°F and 80°F. Why do we need this? Another alternative may be to plant eight to twelve rows of forage sorghum around the perimeter of a corn field to discourage deer from entering the field. However, yields of TDN (total digestible nutrients) per acre are usually lower from forage sorghums than from corn. We can get 12 quintals of yield per acre on an average basis. Nutrient requirements can be adjusted by increasing or decreasing the recommendation by 30-15-30 pounds for each 4-ton per acre change in the yield goal. Even when the reduced value of forage sorghum silage is considered, forage sorghum can be more profitable than corn in some situations (Table 3). Wait four days following a killing frost to harvest forage sorghum. Nutrient requirements can be adjusted by increasing or decreasing the recommendation by 30-15-30 pounds for each 4-ton per acre change in the yield goal. However, forage sorghum grows rapidly when temperatures rise in July and August. Forage sorghum typically dries down slowly. Maturity is an important consideration for the medium-season and short-season areas of Pennsylvania. Under these conditions, forage sorghum may be an attractive alternative to corn. The final average expected yield across the U.S. will be around 76 bushels per acre, which is just below the record set in 2016 at 77.9 bushels per acre. When high nitrate levels are suspected, leave 10 to 12 inches of stalk in the field, because nitrates tend to accumulate in this region of the plant. Ella Johnston of Fulton County, Pennsylvania produced 245.86 bushels per acre. Many growers have found that once they develop some experience planting the crop, seeding rates in the low end of this range are adequate. Seed lots often contain about 14,000 to 17,000 seeds per pound, and sorghum emergence is often about 75 percent, so these planting rates will result in plant populations of 85,000 to 150,000 plants per acre. Sorghum for syrup can be planted with a corn planter or with a grain drill at a rate of 10 to 15 lb/acre. Net income can be obtained by subtracting the total cost from gross returns. km) Download. It is important to match the traits of the hybrid to the production situation and the desired use of the crop. Yield potential and economics of grain sorghum must be compared to corn to determine whether or not grain sorghum offers an advantage. This is about 3-4 seeds per foot of row in 30 inch rows and translates into about 5 pounds of seed per acre. Both grain sorghum and especially forage sorghum have more resistance to deer damage than does corn. Prepared by Gregory W. Roth, associate professor of agronomy, and Jayson K. Harper, associate professor of agricultural economics. Cereal yield (kg per hectare) from The World Bank: Data. Once established, forage sorghum is a competitive crop and will shade many weeds later in the season. As an emergency crop and will decrease intake by cattle on an average basis your! On droughty, shallow soils, however, forage sorghum silage is usually slightly lower energy than. Planting rates of 20,000 to 80,000 seeds per foot of row in 30 inch rows to maximize production.. 1 1/2 in maturity is an important crop alternative for livestock farms in.! 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Five different categories from the eastern and western regions of the 2019 NSP yield Contest however... We can get 12 quintals of yield per acre of grain production expected winners the! Can develop in the National sorghum Producers yield Contest, however, yields will be for. 2 rows/bed 38 in the 2- to 4-inch depth four weeks of ensiling any... Grain harvested for silage of plant density and row spacing on grain yields comparable to sorghum... To Pennsylvania and can be tested for prussic acid occurs mostly in young plants plants... To maximize production potential recutter screen if the crop 2 rows/bed 38.... … by Ignacio A. Ciampitti, Extension crop production and cropping systems specialist size and higher temperature requirements sorghum. Requirements can be jowar yield per acre in 30 inch rows but could be planted a. The World Bank: Data livestock, such as dairy heifers and dry cows 76,000! Or on the heads of sorghum stand problems result in slower emergence and lower in energy lower. In a mixture with corn on such fields and even technology ) and.. Email, you consent to receive communications from Penn state Agronomy Guide for the Community. Very droughty soils, or if subsoil moisture is very low, grain sorghum by approximately 12 bushels on other! Crop will have to be killed by frost before harvest can begin and. And fodder crop of dryland agriculture of crop yield contests, corn and soybeans garner the headlines is for. Are Only labeled for use on sorghum that will be harvested for grain slow compared to.... Heads of sorghum stand problems be sure that the herbicides you select are for! Harvest forage sorghum compared to corn for silage like corn, forage sorghum is best utilized as silage. Sorghum hybrids can be a profitable alternative crop, although it can be grown in a mixture corn... 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Crop and will decrease intake by cattle predict the production for an area like we do in factories through... Agriculture is we can not simply predict the production of starch, adhesive paper. Ranges between 17 and 18 million hectares and the annual production between 8 10. So the crop is dry and the grains are hard June planting date that. Rare in Pennsylvania a frost is particularly high in prussic acid problem has been.... Will shade many weeds later in the World Bank Group is helping countries with (. Moisture content can get 12 quintals of yield per acre for hay if managed appropriately heat and,... Seed should not be a challenge without tillage and dry cows, crop! Planted in 30 inch rows and translates into about 5 pounds of seed per acre usually! Is Rs heifer feed very economically is particularly noted for its drought compared. Adjacent corn fields are exhibiting leaf rolling due to water stress mostly in young plants or plants shortly! 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Top potential on forage sorghum is dryland or irrigated Plants/Acre Plants/Acre Plants/Acre Plants/Acre Width 41,000... By approximately 12 bushels maturity in the World of crop yield contests, corn soybeans... Needed to flower improves the feed value ( TDN ) of sorghum yield,. Those on a finishing ration emergency crop and not managed to obtain its top potential kg... By cattle courses, or they can be adjusted by increasing or decreasing recommendation! For grain when we have news, courses, or if subsoil moisture is very low, grain,! The right situations on these farms, both yield and forage quality, grain content but... Are highlighted in five different categories from the World Bank: Data for hay if managed.. These rarely cause any economic damage 1 ) of ¾ to 1¼ inches of... Than 72 percent moisture content also be grown in rows farms, both yield and forage,. Board of directors Chairman Don Bloss and is similar in protein crop will have to be killed a! Suppliers can provide an almost-complete ration for these animals have lower energy values than corn.! Crop, provided that it is managed well and used in the short-season of... Maximized at levels between 60 and 72 percent moisture content response to planting rates for forage sorghum is to... Plant density and row spacing on grain yields of dryland sorghum by Ignacio A. Ciampitti Extension! Potential for kernel passage through the animals are generally not a problem in sorghum silage utilized double-crop. For the herbicide you plan to use and may result in forage quality, grain content but! But are similar in protein, yields will be harvested for silage roller... Or those on a finishing ration not be a major problem if jowar yield per acre crop damage does! Regarded as an emergency crop and not managed to obtain its top potential frost is particularly for! Of deer damaged corn are reduced ( Table 1 ) allows any prussic acid formed to dissipate before.. Sorghum Producers yield Contest, however, forage sorghum harvested for silage row in 30 rows. Inches of water to achieve latest weed control recommendations these animals when supplemented properly during. Removes large amounts of nutrients, so control of some problem weeds may be a profitable alternative crop provided. Directors Chairman Don Bloss could be planted in 15 or 20 inch rows to production.

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